New Electronics – E-motorcycle innovation

As Neil Tyler discovers, electric motorcycles offer many benefits when it comes to air pollution, noise pollution, fuel source and climate change.

While users of motorcycles and mopeds with petrol engines tend to argue that they are not only more economical than cars, but also that their impact on the environment is much better, but certainly more questions than answers when it comes to as far as they are environmentally friendly. are.

The use of motorcycles has increased worldwide, and this has been due to a combination of factors, the most important of which is the growing importance of their “last mile” role in terms of MaaS (Mobility-as-a-Service), allowing the public to plan, book, pay for and provide several different services.

When it comes to their impact on the environment, Raymond Ye of Poweramp (a company part of Amperex, part of the TDK group that produces lithium-ion batteries), emphasizes: “Environmental standards for L have been applied relatively recently. – vehicles of the category such as motorcycles, mopeds, ATVs and motorcycles with the introduction of the Euro 1 standard in 1999.

“What’s even more surprising is that the latest implementation of the Euro-5 standard, which became mandatory last year, limits exhaust emissions only at the same level as Euro-6 cars.”

Whatever the standards, OEMs are now switching to electric transmission, and the global market for electric motorcycles and scooters is reported to have exceeded $ 30 billion in 2020 and is expected to grow by about 4% CAGR (challenging annual growth rate) between 2021 and 2027.

“The full-scale adoption of electric motorcycles, however, will require the elimination of many technical obstacles, including expanding the range and reducing charging time, as well as infrastructure development, such as the construction of charging stations,” – says E.

Raising consumer awareness of air pollution and high demand for low-noise transport solutions are also contributing to growth.

A typical electric motorcycle will be designed to look like a gasoline motorcycle and will be powered by an electric battery. They are usually larger and more powerful than electric scooters, and can travel much further when the battery is fully charged.

Governments around the world are looking to increase EV consumption, and this is also seen as contributing to increased demand for electric motorcycles and scooters.

Government initiatives are proposed that include such subsidies, grants, and tax rebates for the purchase of electric two-wheelers. For example, in March 2019, the Government of India allocated $ 1.4 billion under the Accelerated Acceptance and Production of Electric Vehicles (FAME II) scheme to encourage the introduction of electric vehicles.

Another important factor is rising fuel prices, which encourage consumers to switch to electric motorcycles and scooters.

Having your CAKE

At this year’s Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, Swedish electric motorcycle manufacturer CAKE showcased its series of professional motorcycles: work.

As mentioned earlier, the growing importance of mobility as a service opens up opportunities for OEMs in the professional space.

According to CEO and company founder Stephen Itterborn, “the: work series offers users the opportunity to shift deliveries to the last mile and mobile workforce from traditional urban transport solutions that outperform both cars and bicycles.

“This initiative is the company’s most important contribution to date in accelerating the process to a zero-emission society.”

In addition, Cake has also developed built-in connectivity for its bikes, and the Ridecake connectivity app has been designed to help racers and professional fleet managers monitor and control their vehicles through fleet management systems.

According to Itterborn, “our connectivity solutions add an extra level of efficiency through driving, measurement, control and unique settings – for both private racers traveling to work or racing and fleet owners looking to maximize the performance of their cars.” .

These connectivity features are available through the CAKE Connect module with data service support and can interact via the cloud or Bluetooth connection.

CAKE Connect also allows users to change transmission characteristics by adjusting torque, top speed and regenerative braking so owners can adjust their bikes to performance and riding style needs, whether it’s a city trip, gear transport, terrain study or as Ytborn says : “anything in between”.

With the head-up display feature the phone can be used as a bike interface, displaying real-time ride and performance details.

The system has also been configured to allow firmware to be updated over the air, as well as providing access to anti-theft features and customizing custom driving modes.

High costs

“The high initial cost of purchasing electric two-wheeled vehicles is one of the key market factors that restrain demand in the market of electric motorcycles and scooters,” explains E.

“High-capacity batteries are crucial for the efficient operation of electric motorcycles and scooters, and it is the high cost of these batteries that increases the overall cost of electric two-wheelers. In addition, high-quality materials are used in the production of electric motorcycles and scooters to improve aesthetics and reduce weight, and all this increases the initial selling price.

However, the constant research and development of OEMs help to significantly reduce the cost of the battery.

Today, electric batteries are usually made of lithium-ion, nickel metal hydride or lead acid. Although nickel metal hydride batteries are gradually going out of production, more and more companies are turning to lithium-ion batteries.

“Modern electric motorcycles are increasingly using compact, lightweight lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries with high energy density. The shape of the battery can be divided into cylindrical, prismatic and batch (laminated), – says E. Of these three types of bag cells have the highest energy density, and they can be made thinner and lighter, which is very important for motorcycles, where it is important to reduce space and weight ”.

However, he emphasizes that because conventional bag-type lithium-ion batteries typically focus on small consumer electronics devices such as smartphones, they do not necessarily have an acceptable operating temperature range suitable for electric motorcycles.

“For example, battery efficiency can reduce a motorcycle’s power reserve by up to 50% in cold climates. Fortunately, new battery and transmission technologies make this a less limiting factor. ”

According to Ye, TDK has been able to significantly improve efficiency in cold conditions by optimizing the design of materials used for electrodes, and can offer long charging cycles and charge / discharge characteristics at lower temperatures.

In addition, compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, the TDK lithium-ion battery provides a stable discharge at higher power thanks to the patented Multiple Tabs Winding (MTW) ​​technology, which increases the power of the motorcycle.

“A terminal, also known as a tab, is attached to the positive and negative electrodes of the battery to allow current to flow in and out. MTW technology uses several tabs that accurately align with each other, preventing local overheating, reducing current resistance and ensuring stable discharge at high power, ”he explains.

“If the battery cells overheat to such an extent that they begin to burn, the resulting fire cannot be extinguished by conventional fire extinguishers; it becomes a self-sustaining chemical fire, also known as thermal escape.

In addition, a stable discharge at high power is crucial for an electric motorcycle to prevent overloading of the electric motor.

“For example, when the supply voltage drops, the motor will consume more current in the winding to maintain its torque and it could potentially overheat. If left unchecked, overheating will result in insufficient insulation, as every 10 ° C temperature increase the life of the insulation is halved. This degradation can cause leakage and short circuit, and eventually engine failure. If the engine of an electric motorcycle suddenly shuts down while driving, it will suddenly stop, which could potentially cause an accident. ”

Another important requirement is the ability to quickly charge batteries.

“In this case, Flash Fast Charging TDK technology allows you to charge the battery to 80% of its capacity in 25 minutes. For electric motorcycles to replace ICE motorcycles, lithium-ion batteries need to be more efficient, safe and comfortable, but now we see that EV motorcycles are getting faster, lighter, safer and smarter.

Battery management

Effective battery management remains a challenge, but Sensata Technologies has developed a new i-BMS (BMS) battery management system specifically for electrified applications up to 60 V.

The i-BMS battery management system is a compact, integrated cell chemistry-independent battery management system designed for applications such as 2- and 3-wheeled vehicles, automated controlled vehicles (AGVs) and robotics.

Hot-swappable functionality and parallel battery support mean you can quickly replace discharged batteries with fully charged ones. For example, when it comes to electric motorcycles, instead of having to recharge for a few hours every night, fully charged batteries can be quickly installed in the field at battery replacement stations, eliminating the need to wait and recharge on the go. This definitely helps alleviate some end-user problems about charging time.

Support for the parallel unit allows the use of two or more batteries in parallel, and this feature allows OEMs of 2- and 3-wheeled vehicles to use smaller battery modules, and improves the safety and performance of the battery system.

If one battery fails during use, the problem is isolated by this one faulty module, which is then easier to replace than with the entire system, and additional batteries can continue to provide power.

Critical components have been pre-integrated into the system, including a pre-charge circuit, on-board current measurement, MOSFET power switches to disconnect the battery and a DC / DC power supply.

Advanced algorithms in BMS Sensata software also provide accurate power state predictions (SOPs) based on cell internal resistance, voltage and current limits, accurate charge state calculations (SOC) and (health state) SOH. calculated based on the effect of aging.

All of this means that customers can maximize battery usage and increase power reserve, uptime and performance of their car. In addition, BMS Creaton configuration software has been developed that will allow the battery developer to create a unique battery installation by defining specific BMS parameters and security strategies, optimizing battery performance.

Battery management and technology are improving day by day, and for millions of people who still have little access to buses, trains and even cars, and who need to cover distances that are too far to walk or bike, electric motorcycles provide them with a reliable and environmentally friendly solution.

Leave a Comment